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1) The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has four historic parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
2) The capital of England is London; the capital of Scotland is Edinburgh; the capital of Wales is Cardiff; the capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast.
3) England has got a red rose.
4) The War of the Red and White Roses started because the Lancastrians argued for the throne of England with the Yorkists. It was the war for the throne.
5) The Lancastrians won the war and their arms of the Red Rose became the symbol of the whole England.
6) The red rose became the symbol of the whole of England in 1485 because it decorated the arms of the House of Lancaster.
7) The Scottish emblem is the thistle.
8) At one point, the Scandinavians intended to attack a Scottish village. But since the Scots knew they were coming, they started to prepare for war. Late at night, the Scandinavians came in their bare feet so as to not awaken the Scottish warriors in the Scottish village. But the thorns of the thistle hurt their bare feet. Their howls of pain pierced the silence and the Scots awoke to fight the enemy.
9) The Welsh symbol is a vegetable: a leek or the flower, the daffodil.
10) The leek became the Welsh floral symbol as the Saint of Wales, David, ate only leek and bread. In memory of this Christian saint, the leek became the symbol of Wales.
11) St David is the Welsh patron saint.
12) The Welsh celebrate their dear saint on the 1st of March when daffodils burst into flames.
13) The Irish symbol is another wild plant — the shamrock.
14) St Patrick is the Irish national saint.
15) With the help of this plant St Patrick explained to the people of the country what the Holy Trinity is. Shamrock has three leaves to unify the Trinity: God the Father, the Son of God and the Holy Spirit.
16) The historic colours of the parts are: in England — white, in Scotland — blue, in Wales — red, in Northern Ireland — green.